The car can protect itself if you redline while on the throttle. This means the motor won't over rev if you are standing on it. The only way to get the motor to over rev is if you are not on the throttle, but the car's energy is too high, that is, when you engage a gear that's too low. Then, even if the ignition is cut, the motor itself will still physically over rev.
This may make more sense later on as you become more familiar. In short, no, you didn't damage anything. Yet. Redlining isn't the best for the motor.