TURBO INFO [compressor maps, flow, volume etc.]
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This is a discussion on TURBO INFO [compressor maps, flow, volume etc.] within the Engine Modifications forums, part of the Tech & Modifying & General Repairs category; I'm trying to understand turbo dynamics better and I need a quick tutorial on how properly read a compressor map. ...

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    Registered User koyokid's Avatar
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    Reading Compressor Maps

    I'm trying to understand turbo dynamics better and I need a quick tutorial on how properly read a compressor map.

    I'll attatch two compressor maps. The first is the TD04L-13G. This is the stock turbo for the WRX
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    Registered User koyokid's Avatar
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    The next one is a T3 Super 60 that I've been told is very close to what I have in my car now.

    Can someone translate these maps into laymans terms and give a quick demo of what is being portraid in these charts?

    Thanks in advance.
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    Registered User djrez4's Avatar
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    Well, for starters, you have different units on those two maps, which makes things a bit more difficult, but, i'll give you a general overview.

    The vertical axis is pressure ratio, meaning how much the air is compressed. Here a ratio of 2:1 means it's compressing the air to twice the normal density, giving you 1bar of MAPressure.

    The horizontal axis is actual flow. The TD04 map is in cubic feet/minute (CFM) while the T3 is in LB/MIN. This makes comparison a bit tough between the two maps.

    The lines that are curving across the middle of the map are turbine RPMs.

    The lines enclosing area on the maps are efficiency rates. If you look on the TD04 map, you can see the percentages written on the map.

    Now, reading the TD04 map, we see that peak efficiency is 76%. The area enclosed by the 76% line includes all of the area in which the turbo is operating at peak efficiency. That said, the most you can get out of the TD04 at peak efficiency is about 0.9bar of pressure and 225 CFM of flow.

    The T3 map is rather crappy. While we can still tell where peak efficiency is, we aren't quite sure exactly how efficient the turbo is inside that area. You can, however, see that you can run about 1.25bar of pressure within peak efficiency and flow around 25 lb/min of air.

    A direct comparison of the two turbos can't be accurately made with these two maps because a cubic foot of air will weigh different amounts depending temperature.

    That said, you can push the turbos out of peak efficiency range. You'll heat up the air quite a bit as you move farther out on the maps though.

    One last thing youc an tell from the maps is what the turbo is capable of at certain rpms. If you follow the rpm lines across the map, they show the exact CFM for a certain pressure at a certain rpm. For example, on the TD04 map, there is a point included that shows that with the turbo spinning at 150,000rpm, the turbo will push out 360CFM at 1.0bar of pressure. This also puts it in the 60-65% efficiency range. (bad)

    Hope this helps!


    Now...what we need is a compressor map library!
    Last edited by djrez4; 01-08-2003 at 04:47 PM.
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    Moderator TypeC's Avatar
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    First go to
    My CFM calculator

    Enter the peak boost you plan to run and the rpm in which you plan to reach it (or leave blank for simplification) and the displacement in CU (there is a check box to change it to CC units).

    This will give you two numbers for each rpm point: Pressure ratio (PR) and air flow (in cfm) for your motor.

    All you have to do is look at any compressor map and plot PR vs air flow (in cfm or lb/hr). You want your plot to stay withing the most ideal part of that compressor map.

    The map has rings. The rings represent the compressor effeciency at a given point. There is also a line show compressor rpm. The higher the compressor rpm, the hotter the air will be and the harder the turbo will be working (read: longivity). If your plot gets to the left of the chart (off of the chart) the compressor will surge. This usually happens when you try to put a turbo that is too big for a car.

    Now the links!

    This is what you should read first. It pretty much teaches you everthing you need to know about turbos and maps:
    http://www.badbricks.com/main_files/faqs/turbo_size.htm (link not currently working)

    here is a site that plots it for you on top of various charts:
    http://www.bsmotor.com/turbo/kalkuler.html

    on the sites that don't plot it for you, or if you find a chart elsewhere, you just print out the compressor map and draw it in with ink.

    turbonetics compressor maps:
    http://www.turboneticsinc.com/comp_maps/fig1.html

    garret compressor maps:
    http://www.bsmotor.com/turbo/tabell.html

    Mitsubishi turbos upgrade guide and well as some GOOD tech info http://www.3si.org/member-home/jluci...turboguide.htm (link not currently working)


    After reading all of this and understanding it, you'll pretty much know all you need to about turbos (beside actually getting hands-on experience).

    -C

    This almost seems like a FAQ.

    [EDIT] I forgot I added the cfm to lb/hr conversion checkbox on my calcuation page.
    Last edited by TypeC; 01-08-2003 at 07:14 PM.
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  6. #5
    Registered User djrez4's Avatar
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    Turbo info thread (flow, compressor maps, etc...)

    Compiled by Hotrod on NASIOC:

    Last updated 12/28/02
    Turbo Type ----------- Approx flow @ pressure
    Stock Turbo ---------- 360 CFM at 14.7 PSI
    IHI VF 25 ------------- 370 CFM at 14.7 PSI <--- estimated
    IHI VF 26 ------------- 390 CFM at 14.7 PSI <--- estimated
    T3 60 trim ----------- 400 CFM at 14.7 PSI
    IHI VF 27 ------------- 400 CFM at 14.7 PSI <--- estimated
    IHI VF 24/28/29 ----- 410 CFM at 14.7 PSI <--- estimated

    ========= 422 CFM max flow for a 2 Liter at .85 VE pressure ratio 2.0 (14.7 PSI) 7000 RPM =======

    IHI VF 23 ------------- 423 CFM at 14.7 PSI
    FP STOCK HYBRID -- 430 CFM at 14.7 PSI <--- derived from HP potential listed on web
    IHI VF-30 ------------- 435 CFM at 14.7 PSI <--- estimated
    SR 30 ----------------- 435 CFM at 14.7 PSI
    IHI VF-22 ------------ 440 CFM at 14.7 PSI <--- refigured
    T04E 40 trim -------- 460 CFM at 14.7 PSI

    ========= 464 CFM max flow for a 2.2 Liter at .85 VE pressure ratio 2.0 (14.7 PSI) 7000 rpm =======

    PE1818 -------------- 490 CFM at 14.7 PSI <--- estimated from max flow numbers
    Small 16G ------------ 505 CFM at 14.7 PSI
    ION Spec (stg 0) --- 525 CFM at 14.7 PSI <--- per vendor post 12-27-2002

    ========= 526 CFM max flow for a 2.5 Liter at .85 VE pressure ratio 2.0 (14.7 PSI) 7000 RPM =======

    Large 16G ----------- 550 CFM at 14.7 PSI
    SR 40 ----------------- 595 CFM at 14.7 PSI
    18G ------------------- 600 CFM at 14.7 PSI
    PE 1820 -------------- 630 CFM at 14.7 PSI <--- estimated from max flow numbers
    20G ------------------ 650 CFM at 14.7 PSI
    SR 50 ---------------- 710 CFM at 14.7 PSI
    GT-30 ---------------- 725 CFM at 14.7 PSI
    60-1 ----------------- 725 CFM at 14.7 PSI
    GT-35R -------------- 820 CFM at 14.7 PSI
    T72 ------------------ 920 CFM at 14.7 PSI <--- Note you would have to spin a 2.0 L engine at about 14,000 rpm to flow this much air.

    IHI VF 25 ----------- 395 CFM at 18 PSI <--- estimated
    IHI VF 26 ----------- 400 CFM at 18 PSI <--- estimated
    T3 60 trim ---------- 410 CFM at 20 PSI
    IHI VF 27 ----------- 420 CFM at 18 PSI <--- estimated
    IHI VF 24/28/29 -- 425 CFM at 18 PSI <--- estimated
    IHI VF 23 ----------- 430 CFM at 18 PSI <--- estimated
    IHI VF-30 ----------- 460 CFM at 18.0 PSI <--- estimate based on trap speeds of cars running this turbo
    AVO 320HP -------- 465 CFM at 17.5 PSI
    T04E 40 trim ------ 465 CFM at 22 PSI
    FP STOCK HYBRID- 490 CFM at 18.0 PSI
    IHI VF-22 ---------- 490 CFM at 18.0 PSI <--- refigured
    SR 30 --------------- 490 CFM at 22 PSI
    Small 16G ---------- 490 CFM at 22 PSI
    ION Spec (stg 0) - 500 CFM at 19 PSI <--- per vendor post 12-27-2002
    PE1818 ------------ 515 CFM at 22 PSI <--- estimated from manufactures rated max power
    Large 16G --------- 520 CFM at 22 PSI <--- upgraded flow some on review of compressor map

    ========= 526 CFM max flow for a 2 Liter at .85 VE pressure ratio 2.5 (22 PSI) 7000 rpm =======

    ========= 578 CFM max flow for a 2.2 Liter at .85 VE pressure ratio 2.5 (22 PSI) 7000 rpm =======

    HKS GT2835 ------- 580 CFM at 22 PSI 400 hp
    MRT 400 ------------ 580 CFM at 16 PSI
    AVO 400HP -------- 580 CFM at 17.5 PSI
    MRT 450 ------------ 650 CFM at 19 PSI
    AVO 450HP -------- 650 CFM at 20.0 PSI
    SR 40 ---------------- 650 CFM at 22 PSI

    ========= 658 CFM max flow for a 2.5 Liter at .85 VE pressure ratio 2.5 (22 PSI) 7000 rpm =======

    HKS GT3037 ------ 670 CFM at 22 PSI 460 hp
    PE 1820 ----------- 680 CFM at 22 PSI <--- estimated from manufactures rated max power
    20G ---------------- 695 CFM at 20.0 PSI
    HKS GT3040 ----- 710 CFM at 22 PSI 490 hp
    AVO 500HP ------ 770 CFM at 22 PSI
    SR 50 ------------- 770 CFM at 22 PSI
    GT-30 ------------- 790 CFM at 22 PSI
    60-1 --------------- 800 CFM at 22 PSI
    HKS GT3240 ----- 830 CFM at 22 PSI 570 hp
    GT-35R ----------- 880 CFM at 22 PSI
    T72 --------------- 1000 CFM at 22 PSI <--- note you would have to run a 2.0 L engine at >40 PSI boost to flow this much air

    Conversions used where I had control over conversion factors:
    1 HP approx equals 1.45 CFM

    1 CFM approx equals 0.0745 lb of air/min

    0.108 Lb/min approx equals 1 hp

    1 Meter cubed/sec = 35.314 CFS = 2118.867 CFM

    1 KG/sec = 132 lbs/min approx equals 1771.812 CFM

    power coversions:
    1 PS = 0.9859 HP = 75 Kgf m/sec
    1.3405 HP = 1 KW
    1 HP = 746 watts
    Last edited by djrez4; 01-14-2003 at 04:25 AM.
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    Registered User djrez4's Avatar
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    Compressor maps!

    Compressor maps!

    Compiled by **** Nogs at NASIOC

    http://****nogs.d2g.com/iclub/turbos/compressor_maps/
    Last edited by djrez4; 01-08-2003 at 05:24 PM.
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    Turbo troubleshooting

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    Registered User djrez4's Avatar
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    Turbo formulas

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    Registered User koyokid's Avatar
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    This info is awesome. Thank you very much.

    Convert CFM to lb/min: Mass Flow(lb/min) = 0.0756 x Volume Flow(cfm)
    Last edited by koyokid; 01-08-2003 at 05:52 PM.
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  12. #11
    Registered User koyokid's Avatar
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    Thank you very much, both of you, for this information. I'll be sure to review it.
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  13. #12
    Registered User djrez4's Avatar
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    More good info

    Volumetric flow, efficiency, how to read compressor maps, theoretical compressor outlet air temps, etc...

    http://www.gnttype.org/techarea/turbo/turboflow.html
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  14. #13
    Registered User djrez4's Avatar
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    See? When Rez doesn't sleep, good things happen!

    Breaking out in cold sweats...is that a sign of sleep deprivation or caffeine overload?
    Last edited by djrez4; 01-08-2003 at 06:05 PM.
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    Registered User koyokid's Avatar
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    Let it be heard thruout the kingdom that ClubWRX is the greatest car site of all time.
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  16. #15
    Registered User pace's Avatar
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    Just wanted to expand further on the comments regarding the pressure ratio (y-axis) on the compressor maps. Although a PR of 2.0 logically equates to around 1 bar of boost, there are some factors that you need to take into account for an accurate calculation.

    The formula I use is as follows:

    pOut/pIn = (Pm + Pic + Patm) / (Pit + Patm)

    Where Pm = Relative boost pressure @manifold.
    Pic = Pressure drop through IC.
    Patm = Absolute ambient barometric pressure.
    Pit = Pressure drop@inlet.

    Units of measurement are PSI.

    So let's say there is a 3psi drop through the stock intercooler (not outlandish for a small tube-fin IC), plus a 0.5psi drop at the turbocharger inlet (guesstimate). Sea-level barometric pressure is 14.7psi

    Given these conditions, a PR of 2.0 would figure as follows:

    2.0 = (Pm + 3 + 14.7) / (-0.5 + 14.7)

    Solving for Pm:

    Pm = 2 . 14.2 - 17.7

    Pm = 10.7 psi

    This is important in the selection of compressors based upon flow map data because you generally need to run a higher PR than it might first appear. i.e Your turbo needs to work to overcome the pressure drop across the IC (and at the inlet). 1bar of boost at the compressor outlet does not necessarily equal 1bar of manifold boost.

    -Pace

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